Yakutsk is located on the left bank of the Lena. It’s the largest city in the zone of perpetual conge-lation. It was founded by a yenisey Cossack. Then this burg became a center of the Yakutskoye office of voevode. Field men, service class men and peasants-settlers came over the Urals and moved to the east at the end of the 16th century. They reached the shores of the Pacific ocean and began exploring the Fast East intensively. One of the first Yakuts’ settlements is near Lake Sayri.
Yakutia, Siberia climate
Yakutia is full of natural contrasts: due to extreme continental climate, the amplitude of air temperature fluctuations exceeds 100 ° C from 40 ° C in summer to -60 ° C in winter. There is a cold pole of the northern hemisphere of the planet, where the temperature is -71.2 ° C in Oimyakon, the territory of the Republic of Yakutia. Winter in Yakutia is long, cold and little snow, and the summer is short, for the most part dry with relatively high temperatures.
The Old Town is one of interesting places in Yakutsk. It’s not a town at all. It’s a historical block with a lot of merchant houses and other buildings of the 19th century. Each one has its own historical background. But only two authentic historical objects remained which are Russian-Asian Bank and Ammosov’s museum. The territory of the Historic and Architectural Complex is a real museum in the open. All the buildings including shopping streets and parts of the burg are reconstructed from the old photographs, pictures and drafts. The oldest building in the city was the Tower of Yakutskiy burg. But it was burnt. A women’s high school is related to the Old Town’s buildings as well as Transfiguration Church, a wooden salt stall and the main burgh tower. There are important permafrost scientific centres in this city. You can also visit Romanov’s memorial house.
Mammoth Museum is a centre which is engaged in researching mammoths and their habitat during the Ice Age. You can see unique paleontology exhibits there. Archaeologists found Ace Age mammoth, woolly rhino, bison, and horse skeletons The museum’s collection includes over 2 thousand bone remains of fossil animals of mammoth fauna. There are seventeen showcases withcollection materials such as body parts, pelts, bones, tusks, and photos. The museum offers a ivory carving masterclass. You will be amazed by reconstructed skeletons, stuffed animals, decorations, etc.
The Permafrost Museum-Tourist Centre is surrounded by volcanoes. There is a volcano with a tunnel (gallery) inside it. The gallery is divided into some halls. There are ice crystals on the walls of the cave. You can see a throne with a skin of a bear in the first hall. There are icy caves with ice sculptures. The food, household items, animals, and people are made of ice. You can also see the Museum of Paleontology in a grotto. The bones of primitive animals are displayed there. A visitor can also see a huge glacier in this complex. There is a Hall of Ritual for performing ceremonies.
The first diamond was found in Yakutia in 1949. Also it’s interesting that mammoth bones are called “the white gold”. The Treasury of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) also known as the diamond republic is a collection of unique gold, platinum and silver nuggets, gold dust, large natural diamond and other precious stones. There is also a collection of jewelry made in factories and by local craftsmen such as jewellers, stone carvers, etc. You can see a map which all the mineral deposits in Yakutia are marked on at this museum. Also there is a ceremonial winter Yakutian dress in one of the halls.
A visitor can see plants, insects and animals which grow and live in Yakutia at the Museum of History and Culture of The People of The North which has over 100.000 items. You can judge about material and spiritual culture of Yakutian people by the museum items. There is a skull of a fossil bison in one of the halls. Scientists have brought ethnographic objects, anthropological finds, palaeontological objects, specimens of minerals to the museum from expeditions. Stocks are full of shaman’s items, Yakutian children’s toys, horn, mammoth bone and wooden articles. There is an interior of a nomad’s tent as a part of a landscape exposition.
The National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha has works of art of foreign and Russian masters of 16-20th centuries. The State Tretyakov Gallery gave some works of art to this museum. The stock of the museum was formed from objects of storages all over Russia, private collections such as family collections, leading artists’ studios, etc. A visitor can see watercolours, landscape paintings, items made of bronze, bone, porcelain, and silver, painted clay toys, engravings, paintings, and many others. You will be able to be acquainted with techniques of masters of arts and crafts in this museum.
The Orto-Doido zoo covers 150 acres. There are about 170 species of animals there. They live in the open air in extreme climatic conditions.
You can touch secrets of survival of indigenous and rare species of animals which are in the Red Book, exotic plants and animals such as Bewick’s swans, Siberian tigers and roe deers, Alaskan tundra wolves, fishing cats, musk-oxen, raccoons, polar and brown bears, Arctic foxes, American minks, cranes, golden eagles, ernes, black kites and others. This zoo is known for taking any sick, injured, and orphaned wild animals.
Yakutsk is famous for its rich cultural heritage and unusual climatic conditions. The period at the beginning of summer which is called the White Nights attracts tourists’ attention. A visitor can walk around modern buildings in a central district or take a stroll along the embankment near the river-boat station. You can go to cultural events and visit scientific centers to get acquainted with culture and the traditions of the indigenous population.