In the second part of the XVII century, Voronezh lost its military role, agriculture became the main occupation of its inhabitants. Peter I, preparing for the first Azov campaign, chose Voronezh as a place for the building of fleet. New productions appeared in it: a foundry-gun works, sail, rope, cloth, and tanning factories. Voronezh is considered to be a land of the Soviet air-force landing party. Literary magazines and scientific periodicals were published, and regional researches were conducted in the middle of the XIX century here. The Palace of Peter with the citadel, armoury, Pervomayskiy garden, Petrovskiy square, and Nickolskaya church belong to historical landmarks of the city.
Streletskaya and Remeslennaya slobodas of silversmiths and masters of carpentry, and places of resettlement of the Tzar’s service staff were located in the suburb of Moscow during the XVII century, a city surrounded by Kremlin walls. The Arbat district is a system of streets and alleys formed in the second part of the XVIII century and have remained the same to this day. Since the XVIII century Arbat became a center of spiritual life. The XIX century announced the “Arbat boom”: it was fashionable to settle down and live necessarily here. Intelligentsia – university professorate, writers, and painters – settled more often than others. Tolstoy, Rastopchin, Kropotkin, Dolgorukiy, and Gagarin lived here. It was a noble nest, and simultaneously professorial nest, a nest of doctors, lawyers, philosophers, etc. Moscow has always been a stage of Russian works of classics.
Vyatichi, one of the Slavic tribes, are considered to have been ancestors of ryazancy. Representatives of this tribe began occupying Ryazanschina B.C. yet, and in the XII century A.D. they already managed to create an independent principality with a center in Ryazan (now it’s already an archaeological place called Staraya Ryazan). A heroic battle for defense of Ryazan (now Staraya Ryazan) against invading hordes of Baty-khan as well as a legendary Eupaty Kolovrat’s feat was a bright page of history. Ryazan was a city-guard at the south-east, adjacent to the Cumans’ steppe, remote areas of Russia. The cultural and cognitive tourism is very developed in Ryazan due to unique public culture and originality of this region.
Founded initially as a fortress, Saint-Petersburg began developing into a sea and commercial port, meant to serve the needs of all country from the first years of its existence. Military and commercial shipbuilding, and manufacturing system developed in the city in parallel with trade. As in Moscow, St. Petersburg was to be where socio-political flows spread, cultural values and social theories which reflected most progressive tendencies in the development of Russians were created. Despite the fact that Petersburg differed in its image from other Russian cities due to using the most advan-ced building principles of its time, its lay-out included features inherent to many other Russian cities.
Kostroma was founded on a strategically important part of the Volga route. Since the middle of the XII century this city was a settlement with a developed country-palatial building. The absence of any grave fortifications was a characteristic feature of Kostroma in the middle of XII-XIII centuries in the context of maturity of the city structure. It already was a big prosperous city, a capital of appanage principality, to the beginning of the XIV century. In the period of the Time of Troubles this city became a place where the destiny of the Russian state was being determined. Mikhail Romanov, whom boyards elected at the Zemsky Sobor as a new Russian tzar, found a refuge in the Ipatiev Monastery. The XVII century is a period of prosperity of Kostroma, turned into a rich merchants’ and trade city.